Alumni Bookshelf

  • Where Honeybees Thrive

    Heather Swan

    Penn State University Press


    Colony Collapse Disorder, ubiquitous pesticide use, industrial agriculture, habitat reduction—these are just a few of the issues causing unprecedented trauma in honeybee populations worldwide. In this artfully illustrated book, UW PhD alum Heather Swan embarks on a narrative voyage to discover solutions to—and understand the sources of—the plight of honeybees.

  • In Love with Jerzy Kosinski: A Novel

    Agate Nesaule

    UW Press


     From Agate Nesaule, acclaimed by writers across the globe from Doris Lessing to Tim O’Brien, comes a long-awaited novel. In Love with Jerzy Kosinski is a story of courage and persistence, exploring in fiction the themes that gripped readers of Nesaule’s award-winning memoir, A Woman in Amber.

  • A Woman in Amber: Healing the Trauma of War and Exile

    Agate Nesaule

    Penguin Books


    A moving memoir of both the past and the present, A Woman in Amber, tells the story of the lasting scars inflicted by the occupation in Latvia during World War II, and how that experience affected a woman’s relationship with her mother and husband for years to come.

  • If You Don't Laugh You'll Cry: The Occupational Humor of White Wisconsin Prison Workers

    Claire Schmidt

    University of Wisconsin Press


    America is fascinated by prisons and prison culture, but few Americans understand what it is like to work in corrections. English alumna Claire Schmidt (2003), whose extended family includes three generations of Wisconsin prison workers, introduces readers to penitentiary officers and staff as they share stories, debate the role of corrections in American racial politics and social justice, and talk about the important function of humor in their jobs.

  • 25 Myths That Are Destroying the Environment

    Daniel B. Botkin

    Taylor Trade Publishing


    Daniel B. Botkin, who earned his M.A. in English in 1962, went on to become a journalist and environmental researcher. 25 Myths That Are Destroying the Environment explores the many myths circulating in ecological and political discussions. These myths often drive policy, and this book sets the record straight. What may seem like an environmentally conscious action may very well be bringing about the unnatural destruction of habitats and ecosystems.

  • The Young Oaks | Book One: The Golden Span

    Christopher Laing

    Signal Flag

    Christopher Laing received his BA in Creative Writing 1993. In a family saga that spans the 20th century, Laing provides an expansive portrait of American life on the Mississippi in this first of two volumes.

  • "Sacrificing Sacrifice to Self-Sacrifice: The Sublimation of Sacrificial Violence in Western Indo-European Cultures"

    Eric D. Meyer

    Existenz: An International Journal in Philosophy, Religion, Politics, and the Arts


    Eric D. Meyer (PhD 1991), independent scholar, shares his recent publication in Existenz Journal. Meyer argues that contemporary understanding of violence, sacrifice and self-sacrifice should be understood in light of the ancient origins of sacrifice. Without acknowledging its sacred origins, he argues, sacrifice degrades into an un-sacrificial violence that "challenge[s] the survival of the contemporary world."  

  • Literary Analysis: The Basics

    Celena Kusch



    In Literary Analysis: The Basics, Celena Kusch, Associate Professor of American Literature at the University of South Carolina Upstate and Wisconsin alum (PhD '02) offers an overview of the aims and strategies of literary analysis that apply to any kind of text in any language from any period of time. This book outlines the methodologies employed by today’s experts—from academic scholars to book reviewers—and offers readers new ways to approach the literature they love.

  • Monstrous Fictions: Reflections on John Calvin in a Time of Culture War

    Carl J. Rasmussen

    Lexington Books


    Wisconsin PhD alum John Rasmussen (1978) rereads the the Reformer John Calvin to advance a counterargument against the very political entities and religious organizations that have misappropriated and misunderstood Calvin's thinking. 

  • Full of Empty

    Tim J. Myers



    Princess Claire's smile has flown away like a bird and now she feels full of empty. But there s a way to bring that smile back . . . if only . . .

  • Twelve Women in a Country Called America

    Kelly Cherry

    Press 53


    Kelly Cherry's tenth work of fiction delivers twelve compelling stories about women of the American South. These are women struggling to find their way through the everyday workings of life while also navigating the maze of self. From a young woman's nightmare piano lesson to an elderly woman's luminous last breath, Twelve Women in a Country Called America takes readers on a journey sometimes dark, sometimes funny, and always enlightening.

  • A Kelly Cherry Reader

    Kelly Cherry

    Stephen F. Austin University Press


    A Kelly Cherry Reader collects a body of work, much of it no longer in print, that permits us to remap and re-explore where her writing has come from, where it has gone, and where it is bound yet to go. It reacquaints long-time fans and invites new readers to discover the importance of her work.

  • A Kind of Dream

    Kelly Cherry

    University of Wisconsin Press


    A Kind of Dream is the culminating book in a trilogy Kelly Cherry began with My Life and Dr. Joyce Brothers and The Society of Friends. The trilogy takes us on a Dantean journey from midlife to Paradise. Cherry’s prose is hallmarked by lyric grace, sly wit, the energy of her intelligence, and profound compassion for and understanding of her characters. Set in Madison, Wisconsin, A Kind of Dream reveals a wide view of the world and the authority of someone who has mastered her art.

  • Estonia’s War Children: A Fractured Generation: Their First Five Years in Their New Lands

    Mai Maddisson

    Brolga Publishing


    In this selection of memoirs compiled by Mai Maddisson, UW alum Merike Tamm (M.A. '69, Ph.D., '76) recounts her experience as a child born in a refugee camp in Germany, to Estonian parents, in 1946. She arrived in the US with her family in 1951, and went on to write a dissertation on Jane Austen under the direction of Joe Wiesenfarth.

  • LaRosaSonnetStanzas

    Sonnet Stanzas

    Ralph La Rosa

    White Violet Press


    "Sonnet Stanzas is a wide-ranging summary of a lifetime's experience starting as a six-year old entranced by the music of a school band, racing recklessly through traffic and climbing a tree to watch, horrifying his mother. In later life there's a 70-year old wondering where all the loose women have gone. There are poems of love and loss and of the complexities of adult relationships, along with humorous work including excellent parodies of Keats and Frost."

  • WalkerNoChild

    The Self-Styled No-Child

    Cody Walker

    WayWiser Press


    The Self-Styled No-Child, Cody Walker’s second book of poems, offers an unlikely array of characters: Edward Lear, Mitt Romney, Amy Clampitt, and Andy Kaufman share the stage. Walker himself is ever-present, with his shrugs, his heartbreak, his “way-out rhymes:" “I’d like to write some lines about the snow, / but—I dunno, / the snow seems so / fleeting: / a flock of gulls, late for a meeting.” Full of comic interruptions and grave forecasts, these poems surprise, delight, and terrify.

  • GhostTrees

    Ghost Trees

    Ralph La Rosa

    White Violet Press


    "A dazzling variety of subjects and poetic forms, Ghost Trees admirably demonstrates La Rosa’s command of craft: from lyrical evocations of joyful and wrenching episodes of childhood to odes commemorating young manhood’s attentive acquaintance with the natural world to the mature artist’s sonnets paying tribute to writers influencing his sensibilities as he observes the world."

  • NormanOccupy

    Occupy Wal-Mart

    Al Norman

    Brigantine Media


    Occupy Walmart exposes the “1% corporation,” with its leaders who have amassed enormous wealth by exploiting the 99% who manufacture its products and buy its merchandise. This is UW English alum Al Norman's third publication tackling Wal-Mart.

  • The Case Against Wal-Mart

    The Case Against Wal-Mart

    Al Norman

    Raphel Marketing


    Al Norman, a 1968 UW English grad, has been called the "guru of the anti-Wal-Mart movement" by 60 Minutes. The Case Against Wal-Mart calls for a national consumer boycott of the giant retailer.

  • Slam-Dunking Wal-Mart

    Slam-Dunking Wal-Mart

    Al Norman

    Raphel Marketing


    Slam-Dunking Wal-Mart! is a no-holds-barred recounting of the tactics Wal-Mart uses to climb to the top of the retailing and food chain. It is a call to action and a blueprint for stopping the expansion of giant Wal-Mart.

  • Gay TV and Straight America

    Becker, Ron

    Rutgers University Press


    After decades of silence on the subject of homosexuality, television in the 1990s saw a striking increase in programming that incorporated and, in many cases, centered on gay material. In shows including Friends, Seinfeld, Party of Five, Homicide, Suddenly Susan, The Commish, Ellen, Will & Grace, and others, gay characters were introduced, references to homosexuality became commonplace, and issues of gay and lesbian relationships were explored, often in explicit detail.
  • The Transatlantic Constitution: Colonial Legal Culture and the Empire

    Bilder, Mary Sarah

    Harvard University Press


    Departing from traditional approaches to colonial legal history, Bilder argues that American law and legal culture developed within the framework of an evolving, unwritten transatlantic constitution that lawyers, legislators, and litigants on both sides of the Atlantic understood. The central tenet of this constitution—that colonial laws and customs could not be repugnant to the laws of England but could diverge for local circumstances—shaped the legal development of the colonial world.
  • Parky cover

    Chief Stephen's Parky: One Year in the Life of an Athapascan Girl

    Chandonnet, Ann Fox

    Robert Rinehart Publishers


     Olga, a young woman in a Tanaina Indian family in Alaska in the year 1898, makes a squirrel-skin parka for her husband, Chief Stephen.

  • Write Quick cover

    Write Quick: War and a Woman's Life in Letters, 1835-1867

    Chandonnet, Ann Fox (ed)

    Bethel Historical Society


    The selected correspondence of three New England figures during the American Civil War is presented in the context of their time and culture, along with excerpts of Eliza Foster's wartime diary, to provide an intimate portrait of the Union woman's experience during the Civil War. The volume traces Eliza's life from her experiences as a single woman employed as a "mill girl" in antebellum New England, to young married woman and mother, to war widow.

  • Religious Rhetoric and American Politics: The Endurance of Civil Religion in Electoral Campaigns

    Chapp, Christopher

    Cornell University Press


    From Reagan's regular invocation of America as "a city on a hill" to Obama's use of spiritual language in describing social policy, religious rhetoric is a regular part of how candidates communicate with voters. Although the Constitution explicitly forbids a religious test as a qualification to public office, many citizens base their decisions about candidates on their expressed religious beliefs and values.

  • The Map of What Happened

    Elbe, Susan

    The Backwaters Press


    Susan Elbe's "Map" is an elegant work of starkly-hued reminiscence, a love letter to the city that raised her and an unflinching exploration of the littered personal landscape we all must travel. These deftly-crafted stanzas will conjure home for you--wherever that home is, whatever shape it has taken.             
    --Patricia Smith, author of Shoulda Been Jimi Savannah and Blood Dazzler

  • Where Good Swimmers Drown

    Elbe, Susan

    Concrete Wolf


    Winner of the 2011 Concrete Wolf Chapbook Prize.

    "Her poems are masterful and develop daring wisdom...."
    - Anita K. Boyle, Judge


  • Life From Scratch

    Ford, Melissa

    Belle Books


    A funny, wise, romantic novel about a woman who teaches herself to cook as therapy after a painful divorce, with surprising complications when she begins blogging about life, lost love, and the art of fried eggs.
  • Measure of Love

    Ford, Melissa

    Belle Books


    Rachel has made a new life from scratch with her ex-husband, but can they survive the wedding plans?
  • Navigating the Land of If: Understanding Infertility and Exploring Your Options

    Ford, Melissa

    Seal Press


    Author of the extremely successful blog Stirrup Queens and Sperm Palace Jesters, Melissa Ford presents readers with a guide for navigating the complex world of infertility. The Land of If got its name not only because “IF” is the abbreviation for “infertility” in the online world, but also because there are so many “ifs” inherent in being here.
  • Hobbie

    Buffalo Wings

    Hobbie, Charles



    As World War II comes to an end in 1945, President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies in office. Throughout the country, the greatest generation mourns its leader. A spring snowstorm in Western New York inaugurates the cold war. Chuck Hobbie is just a boy, born on unlucky Friday, April 13th, but fortunate to be a child in Buffalo.

  • No Surrender! No Retreat!: African-American Pioneer Performers of 20th Century American Theater

    Gill, Glenda E.

    Palgrave Macmillan


    No Surrender! No Retreat! examines the careers of fifteen pioneer performers and their triumphs over herculean obstacles. It is a look back over the 20th century and documents personal histories of staggering achievement in spite of institutional racism, gender oppression, and classism.
  • White Grease Paint on Black Performers

    Gill, Glenda E.

    American University Studies


    This theatre history work is an appraisal of the artistic and political impact of the Federal Theatre of The Great Depression on the careers of representative black actors. These include Canada Lee, Rex Ingram and Dooley Wilson.
  • Goodman

    Music Therapy Education and Training

    Karen D. Goodman

    Charles C. Thomas Publisher Ltd.


    Written by a senior clinician and educator in order to meet the needs of prospective and current educators, clinical supervisors and students of music therapy, this book provides an overview and detailed commentary about all aspects of professional and advanced education and training in music therapy.

  • Dawn Night Fall

    Grigsby, Gordon

    Evening Street Press


    In lines that are taut, lean and lucid, Gordon Grigsby’s poems embody the substrate and the epic story of the world from which we came and in which we now struggle to survive. This is a necessary, indeed an essential book for our time.
    —Ernest Lockridge’s most recent book: Skeleton Key to the Suicide of My Father Ross Lockridge, Jr, author of Raintree County  
  • Midwest Ritual Burning

    Harlow, Morgan

    Eyewear Publishing


    This American debut is an impressive bridge across the Atlantic, fusing US avant-gardism and the British pastoral tradition.
  • Exodus


    Heller, Janet Ruth

    WordTech Editions


    The poems in Exodus (WordTech Editions, 2014) are modern re-interpretations and psychological explorations of the people and events in the Bible. A central metaphor is the exodus from Egypt, which represents the journeys that people take: trying new experiences, leaving a bad relationship, finding a new job, taking risks. Many of the poems are dramatic monologues from the perspective of a character in the Scriptures.
  • Passover Surprise

    The Passover Surprise

    Heller, Janet Ruth

    Fictive Press


    Lisa and her little brother Jon enjoy collecting stamps. But when their father holds a contest to decide which child will get a new large stamp album, Lisa has to solve a difficult problem. This middle-grade chapter book takes place around 1960 and includes details about Jewish soldiers’ experiences during World War II and early stages of the Civil Rights Movement.
  • Hergenrader

    Creative Writing in the Digital Age: Theory, Practice, and Pedagogy

    Hergenrader, Trent, Michael Dean Clark, and Joseph Rein

    Bloomsbury Publishing


    Creative Writing in the Digital Age explores the vast array of opportunities that technology provides the Creative Writing teacher, ranging from effective online workshop models to methods that blur the boundaries of genre.

  • Sinners and the Sea

    Kanner, Rebecca

    Howard Books


    Sinners and the Sea is Rebecca Kanner’s debut novel. It was published by Howard Books, an imprint of Simon and Schuster, in April 2013. Rebecca is a Twin Cities native and holds a BA in English from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a Master of Fine Arts in Fiction Writing from Washington University in St. Louis. Her writing has won an Associated Writing Programs Award, a Loft mentorship Award and a 2012/2013 Minnesota State Arts Board Grant.
  • Glitter & Mayhem

    Klima, John, co-editor

    Apex Publications


    Welcome to Glitter & Mayhem, the most glamorous party in the multiverse. Step behind the velvet rope of these fabulous Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror tales of roller rinks, nightclubs, glam aliens, party monsters, drugs, sex, glitter, and debauchery. Dance through nightclubs, roller derby with cryptids and aliens, be seduced by otherworldly creatures, and ingest cocktails that will alter your existence forever.
  • Happily Ever After

    Klima, John, ed.

    Night Shade Books


    Once Upon A Time… in the faraway land of Story, a Hugo-winning Editor realized that no one had collected together the fairy tales of the age, and that doorstop-thick anthologies of modern fairy tales were sorely lacking…
  • Logorrhea: Good Words Make Good Stories

    Klima, John, ed.



    For most of us, these prizewinning spelling bee words would be difficult to pronounce, let alone spell.
  • Kriner

    The Future of the Word: An Eschatology of Reading

    Kriner, Tiffany Eberle

    Fortress Press


    In scripture, Jesus promises a future that potentially infuses all texts: “my words will not pass away” (Matt 24:35). This book argues that texts—even literary texts—, have an eschatology, too, a part in God’s purpose for the cosmos. They, with all creation, move toward participation in the new creation, in the Trinity’s expanding, creative love. This eschatological future for texts impacts how we understand meaning making, from the level of semiology to that of hermeneutics. 


  • Lee

    Living with Heart Disease: Denial, Clarity, Gratitude

    Lee, Robert



    In this often humorous account of one man’s encounter with heart trouble, the author moves from denial, to acceptance, to triumph over his fears of heart disease.

  • Mountains of Light cover

    Mountains of Light: Seasons of Reflection in Yosemite

    Liebenow, R. Mark

    University of Nebraska Press


     Liebenow ’75 emulated his hero, naturalist and activist John Muir, and went to Yosemite. This is his account of hiking in Yosemite through the months of the year, camping with rock climbers, chipmunks, and bears, and using Muir’s words to guide him in seeing the details and spirituality of the wilderness. When his wife unexpectedly died in her forties, Liebenow went to see if nature could help him work his way through grief.

  • The Joy of Fishes

    Lupton, Emily

    Battered Suitcase Press


    Mara Daniels is a physicist doing cutting-edge research into the nature of reality at the University of Chicago. She’s an astronomer. She’s an amateur student of Chinese philosophy. And she’s still recovering from last summer’s car crash that killed Benjamin Zhu, her fiancé.
  • Artifacts and Illuminations: Critical Essays on Loren Eiseley

    Maher, Susan Naramore, co-editor

    University of Nebraska Press


    Loren Eiseley (1907-77) is one of the most important American nature writers of the twentieth century and an admired practitioner of creative nonfiction. A native of Lincoln, Nebraska, Eiseley was a professor of anthropology and a prolific writer and poet who worked to bring an understanding of science to the general public, incorporating religion, philosophy, and science into his explorations of the human mind and the passage of time.

  • Deep Map Country: Literary Cartography of the Great Plains

    Maher, Susan Naramore

    University of Nebraska Press


    Taking its name from the subtitle of William Least Heat-Moon's PrairyErth (a deep map), the "deep-map" form of nonfiction and environmental writing defines an innovative and stratigraphic literary genre. Proposing that its roots can be found in Great Plains nonfiction writing, Susan Naramore Maher explores the many facets of this vital form of critique, exploration, cultural history, geography, memoir, and intertextuality.

  • Places You'll Pump

    Oh, The Places You'll Pump!

    Marsch, Jennifer and Stephanie Trevino

    Orange Hat Publishing


    "You'll marvel at all of the places you'll go/ Where you can have fun and maintain your milk flow . . ." Nursing a newborn can be one of life's great pleasures, and we all know that "breast is best"but that doesn't mean breastfeeding is always easy!

  • Dear Beast Loveliness: Poems of the Body

    Myers, T.J.



    Dear Beast Loveliness explores the riches and the struggles of that most fundamental of human experiences: having a body. Some of the most profound paradoxes we know involve our physical nature.
  • Down at the Dino Wash Deluxe

    Myers, T.J.

    Sterling Children's Books


    A rollicking romp around an old fashioned car wash—where DINOSAURS are the customers! 

  • Glad to Be Dad: A Call to Fatherhood

    Myers, T.J.



    After staying home with his two sons for a year and his daughter since her infancy, Tim Myers knows all about being a stay-at-home parent. He knows the most effective cleaning products, which snacks to buy, and has developed a “housemaid’s knee.” He has experienced first-hand the profound influence fathers have on their children, along with the challenges of being a committed parent.
  • Rude Dude Book of Food

    Rude Dude's Guide to Food

    Myers, Tim J.



    Mongols actually did put raw meat under their saddles to "tenderize" it!  And fortune cookies--gasp--don't come from China!  My "Rude Dude's Book of Food" is just out, a humorous, anecdote-filled history of popular foods (hamburgers, chocolate, etc.) tied to the Common Core and intended for upper-elementary/ middle-school students.

  • Move With Balance®: Healthy Aging Activities for Brain and Body

    Peterson, Karen

    Giving Back


    Our intention is to improve the lives of elders, helping them stay mentally alert and sharp, and reducing their risk of falls and accidents. Perhaps you are aging, you work with elders, or you are concerned about your aging parents. Here's how to bring confidence and joy into the aging years. This brightly illustrated book, which links to 60 on-line demonstration videos, is loaded with dozens of movements (not exercises) that anyone can do, even the frailest elder.

  • Governance cover

    Governance Reconsidered: How Boards, Presidents, Administrators, and Faculty Can Help Their Colleges Thrive

    Pierce, Susan Resneck



    Governance Reconsidered takes an in-depth look at the current practice of governance in higher education and explores solutions for more effective functioning. Written by a former college president, the book provides an insider's perspective on the growing tensions around the traditional shared governance model and identifies the key challenges facing trustees, presidents, senior administrators, and faculty.

  • Presidential cover

    On Being Presidential: A Guide for College and University Leaders

    Pierce, Susan Resneck



    This book from Jossey-Bass and Inside Higher Ed provides presidents, senior administrators, faculty leaders, and trustees with a guide to fulfilling their responsibilities and recommendations to aspiring presidents about how they can best prepare for a successful presidency.

  • Dear Old Love: Anonymous Notes to Former Crushes, Sweethearts, Husbands, Wives, & Ones That Got Away

    Selsberg, Andy



    Call it wisdom of the heart. Or the broken heart.

    A knowing, funny gift for everyone who's ever been in love and then out of love: the newly single, the lonely-hearted, and even the happily re-paired. Dear Old Love is a collection of anonymous love notes to the ones who got away—or were left behind.

  • You Are Good at Things: A Checklist

    Selsberg, Andy



    You may be suffering from unrecognized awesomeness!

    You have the uncanny ability to always notice when someone has gotten a new haircut. You can make the last half-ounce of toothpaste last for a month. You're a genius at getting stores to let you in even though it's closing time. You're a wizard at resisting the urge to eat all the cheese right after grating it.

  • Work on your Handwriting: A Workbook for Adult Learners of English

    Siklos, Jenny



    A workbook to help adult learners of English to improve their handwriting. Work on your Handwriting will help students to improve their handwriting in English. This workbook is suitable for EFL/ESL students of all levels whose studies require longhand writing, such as those preparing for the IELTS exams. It is ideal both for use in the classroom and for self-study or academic study
  • A River Again: The Story of the Schuylkill River Project

    Towne, Chari

    Delaware River Keeper Network


    In a short time, the Schuylkill went from being considered waters of "uncommon purity" to being this country's dirtiest river. That distinction resulted in the Schuylkill River becoming the focus of a precedent-setting river cleanup effort from 1947 to 1951.
  • Trilling

    The Aesthetics of Nostalgia: Historical Representation in Old English Verse

    Trilling, Renée R.

    University of Toronto Press


    Heroic poetry was central to the construction of Anglo-Saxon values, beliefs, and community identity and its subject matter is often analyzed as a window into Anglo-Saxon life. However, these poems are works of art as well as vehicles for ideology. Aesthetics of Nostalgia reads Anglo-Saxon historical verse in terms of how its aesthetic form interacted with the culture and politics of the period.

  • Trident Code

    Trident Code

    Waite, Thomas



    Ruthless cyberhackers seize a US nuclear submarine, training its most powerful weapon on a target so unusual, yet so vulnerable, that a successful strike could change the face of the earth for millions of years. With the world held hostage, former NSA operative Lana Elkins must join forces with a mysterious computer mastermind—who might be working with the enemy—to avert this unprecedented Armageddon. 

  • Lethal Code cover

    Lethal Code

    Waite, Thomas



    America’s worst nightmare has come true: a “cyber–Pearl Harbor” attack by unknown terrorists has crippled the nation’s power grid—and brought the land of the free to its knees. As widespread panic and violence ravage the country, its ruthless captors issue their ultimatums…and vow an apocalyptic reckoning.

  • Terminal Value

    Waite, Thomas

    Marlborough Press


    "Be careful what you wish for." That's a warning Dylan Johnson should have listened to. When his mobile computing firm is bought out by Mantric Technology, a red-hot company about to go public, it seems like a dream come true for the young entrepreneur and his partners. But the closer they get to payout, the more uncertain Dylan becomes.
  • Shuffle and Breakdown

    Walker, Cody

    The Waywiser Press


    Cody Walker's Shuffle and Breakdown, his first collection and a finalist for the Anthony Hecht Poetry Prize in 2005 and 2006, is a work of comic brilliance and devastating irony. From "Abbott and Costello: The Alzheimer's Years" to a series of letters to Whitman from his imagined grandson, this is a wondrous strange book that operates with the precise timing of a great joke, while bracing itself for dissolution and worse.